16th edition IEE wiring regulations : explained and by Brian Scaddan

By Brian Scaddan

This re-creation brings this useful publication into line with the sixteenth variation of the IEE Wiring laws which was once released in may perhaps 1991. Brian Scaddan is the writer of "Wiring structures and Fault discovering for set up Electricians".

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2 Main equipotential bonding conductors, for bonding together main incoming services, structural steelwork etc. 3 Other equipotential bonding conductors, for bonding together sinks, baths, taps etc. 4 Supplementary bonding conductors for bonding exposed conductive parts and extraneous conductive parts, when circuit disconnection times cannot be met, or, in special locations, such as bathrooms, swimming pools etc. The effect of all this bonding is to create a zone in which all metalwork of different services and systems will, even under fault conditions, be at a substantially equal potential.

Hence the magnetic effects of phase and neutral currents cancel out. In a faulty circuit, either phase to earth or neutral to earth, these currents are no longer equal. Therefore the out-of-balance current produces some residual magnetism in the core. As this magnetism is alternating, it links with the turns of the search coil, inducing an EMF in it. This EMF in turn drives a current through the trip coil, causing operation of the tripping mechanism. It should be noted that a phase-to-neutral fault will appear as a load, and hence the RCD will not operate for this fault.

The third and fourth indicate the functions of neutral and protective conductors. Hence: 1 A TT system has a direct connection of the supply source neutral to earth and a direct connection of the installation metalwork to earth. An example is an overhead line supply with earth electrodes, and the mass of earth as a return path (Figure 8). Figure 8 TT system 31 Earthing Figure 9 TN–S system 2 A TN–S system has the supply source neutral directly connected to earth, the installation metalwork connected to the earthed neutral of the supply source via the lead sheath of the supply cable and the neutral and protective conductors throughout the whole system performing separate functions (Figure 9).

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