A concise grammar of Polish by Oscar Swan

By Oscar Swan

A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language examine. it's also compatible to be used because the fundamental textual content in a path on Polish morphology (although workouts would have to be supplied through the instructor).
Phonological and morphological tactics are given specific therapy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation goal at a whole description of all average and such a lot abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of varieties are liberally supplemented with comments relating derivation, utilization, and ameliorations among Polish and English.

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But have a hard-soft opposition in the C/e/C sequences: dzień 'day(nom. )', but den 'bottom (gen. )'. e. dzień and dno), the second word would not definitively give information about whether [d] or [dź] will appear as the vowel alternant. e. dzi/e/ń and d/no), but with the information about whether the consonant is hard or soft in its vowel alternant. In the system of noun declension, the primary positions for the occurrence of the vowel~zero alternation are those case forms which take the zero ending (nominative singular and genitive plural).

N A G L D I V Singular ziemia ziemię ziemi = Gsg. = Gsg. ziemią ziemio Plural ziemie = Npl. ziem ziemiach ziemiom ziemiami = Npl. Excursus on Labial plus -ia Spellings in Polish Polish stem-final spellings of labial plus -ia are ambiguous. g. g. armia ‘army’ [arm’ja]. Note that the ziemia type belongs to our group 3, while armia, with its stem-final consonant cluster [m’j] belongs to type 4. g. ziem--note the phonologically automatic hardening of final labials), while type 4 takes the G pl. g. armii 50 [arm’j-i]).

30 A. ) B. ) C. ). D. ) 4. Verbal a-suffix alternation. Found before all present tense and imperative endings that are used with syllabic -a-suffixed verbs. Note that the -a suffix is deleted in these forms and it could be said that this deletion conditions the consonant alternation. Consonants subject to it include sonorants, labials, dentals, and velars; both dentals and velars use alveopalatal alternants. g. )'. 31 A. ), B. ) C. ) D. ) 5. Conjugation II dental alternation. Basic dental consonants appear in verbal roots, but not within the conjugation itself, since Conjugation II verbs are formed with one of the front vowel word-formation suffixes -i- or -e-, which condition a change in the basic root consonants.

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