By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II
Drawing on usually unpublished files, A kingdom Collapses revises the normal realizing of a severe second within the background of global warfare II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional give up in September 1943. The publication argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations prior to the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments led to an without warning lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's hand over.
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Extra resources for A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943
Italy's departure from the war would have eliminated some of the forces the Allies would have A Nation Collapses to face at Salerno and would have demoralized the remaining German troops. 6. The Landing in Sicily and the Crisis of the Italian Army General Ambrosio appeared aware that the Italian armed forces would not be able to resist an Anglo-American attack on the peninsula after their severe defeats on all fronts. 85 Ambrosio tried to put pressure on Mussolini to speak clearly to the Germans and confront them with the alternatives: either they must give priority to defending Italy and provide the necessary military aid, or Italy would be obliged to leave the alliance and ask for a separate peace.
48 The long discussion between the two governments on the content of the surrender document illustrates the different approaches to the problem of occupying an enemy country, which was to arise again in the case of Germany. A clear statement of the American view can be found in the draft for the German surrender prepared in January 1944, in which any negotiations were ruled out. "49 In the Italian case, the Americans accused the British of intending to "negotiate" with the enemy government, which would be left in place, instead of imposing unconditional surrender.
The proclamation 24 From a Separate Peace to Unconditional Surrender of the unconditional surrender principle was meant to overcome criticisms of the American government that had ensued from the Darlan affair. On the other hand, in choosing to impose unconditional surrender on the enemy powers, the "domestic" goal of strengthening the Allied coalition certainly prevailed over the "external" one of preventing any compromise and destroying Nazism and Fascism. 36 With the adoption of the unconditional surrender principle, Roosevelt and Churchill asked the USSR to make a commitment not to stipulate a separate peace with Germany.