Aerosols and the Lung. Clinical and Experimental Aspects by Stewart W. Clarke

By Stewart W. Clarke

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1980). Early studies by Sturgess and Reid (1972) showed that histamine at similar concentration had no effect. , 1982). , 1982). g. (3-methasone, dexamethasone and triamcinolone, increases mucous glycoprotein secretion but only in some specimens of bronchus. Several nucleotides, cyclic A M P and cyclic G M P have been investigated in vitro and here again the findings are controversial. Shelhamer et al. (1980) found that cyclic G M P increased mucus glycoprotein secretion while cyclic A M P had no effect.

Lateral plasma m e m b r a n e s form complex interdigitations, desmosomes, with adjacent cells. Their cytoplasm contains a prominent Golgi zone, rough endoplasmic reticulum and numerous mitochondria, features of a secretory cell. T h e electron-dense granules, usually in the apical part of cell, are round or oval and measure 0 . 4 - 0 . 6 ( i m in diameter (Cutz and C o n e n , 1971). T h e Clara cells are among the more metabolically active cells in the lungs. e. lysosomal enzymes, esterases, peroxidases, lipases and protease inhibitors.

They have blunt microvilli and contain multivesicular bodies, osmiophilic lamellated indurian bodies, mitochondria, peroxisomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum and a prominent Golgi apparatus (Sorokin, 1961; Petrik, 1971). A third cell type—brush alveolar or type III cell—was first described by Meyrick and Reid (1968) in rat lung and is also present in h u m a n alveoli although very rarely (Weibel, 1973). Their function is unknown but like their counterpart in the large airways they may play a role in water absorption.

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