Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters by James M. Lindenberger

By James M. Lindenberger

This ebook offers an up to date translation of seventy-nine letters and fragments, almost the full corpus of surviving letters in Aramaic and Hebrew right down to the time of Alexander, omitting merely the main fragmentary and the main formulaic. This contains the correspondence from historical Jewish writers at Yavneh-Yam (7th Century), Arad and Lachish (6th), and Elephantine (5th). There also are administrative letters from Persian bureaucrats, inner most advertisement and relations correspondence from Egypt, and different scattered letters from Assyria, Egypt, Philistia, and Idumaea. additionally incorporated are brief notes in Edomite, Ammonite, and Phoenician (one in each one language). The revised version is supplemented by means of an extra 9 texts, a few of them released very lately, no longer present in the 1994 variation. Translations at the moment are supplied with line numbers, and a few were stronger within the mild of modern reports. each one letter seems along the unique textual content in sq. script. short introductions set every one crew of letters into its old and social context. The association inside of each one language team is approximately chronological.

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Sample text

L•. . . . . . ¿ µl• tmjnm ˆymaˆ µl• hnz hrps tjl• 4 [m•ywhy 6 ? . . . . . . ma la¿ 7 5 B 1 To my mother Yahuyishma from your son Shallum. [I send] you greetings and best wishes for your good health. 2 Galgul is well here. Greetings to the children. That [ . . ] 3of mine, give it to Pakhnum son of Nabudelah so he can make [ . . ] . [ . . ] 4they will sue him. If there is any money, give it to him. ]. 5 I am writing to [greet you]. Greetings to my mother Menahemet, [to .

G_w_ ? . . . ¿ yf? a. . . . . ¿ q? . ¿ b‚ aypa ? . . ¿ t‚[kw ? . ¿ alm ytbl hml 20 ? . . . ¿ h‚n_jl• hn• ? . ¿ a‚y_w_ hzjt yzk yz ? ≥ ¿ ktr‚mh yz ? . dw¿• w? . ¿ l albd / tybb a‚lb ‚ ‚d‚ t‚y_b‚ y_z_ ˜dw• ? . . . . ¿ ta 21 22 1 Aramaic Diplomatic-Military Correspondence To my brother Pir-amurri from your brother Bel-etir: Greetings [ . . ] . [You have not written to me since] 2you were with me in Babylonia. I and Arbayya and [ . . went to Bit-3Amukkani.

Elsewhere its presence is indicated by any of several English words or by various subordinating and coordinating constructions. Introduction 13 Aramaic and Hebrew writers often use the expression “now” or “and now” to begin a new section of a letter or to introduce a new topic, where in English this is indicated by beginning a new paragraph, or in some cases by starting a new sentence within the same paragraph. ” In these cases, common English usage has been followed. The words “your servant” and “my lord” present a special problem.

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