By Helmut Liebl

Authored by way of a pioneer of the sphere, this evaluation of charged particle optics presents a high-quality creation to the sphere for all physicists wishing to layout their very own gear or larger comprehend the tools with which they paintings. utilized Charged Particle Optics starts by way of introducing electrostatic lenses and fields used for acceleration, focussing and deflection of ions or electrons. next chapters provide designated descriptions of electrostatic deflection components, uniform and non-uniform magnetic zone fields, photograph aberrations, and, eventually, fringe box confinement. A bankruptcy on purposes is further.

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**Sample text**

Typical dependency of refractive power of einzel lens on the potential of the middle electrode VL for a beam energy eVB has two branches for the two modes. The decel–accel mode is the one used in most practical applications for two reasons: ﬁrstly, since usually the particle source is ﬂoating by the acceleration voltage oﬀ ground and the two outer electrodes of the lens are grounded, the center electrode is then at a voltage with the same sign as the source voltage and can therefore be supplied via a voltage divider.

9 Passage of Charged Particles Through an Electrode with Slotted Aperture When the aperture in an electrode separating spaces of diﬀerent ﬁeld strength is not circular but a slot (Fig. 9 Passage of Charged Particles Through an Electrode 25 Fig. 26. Slotted aperture between diﬀerent ﬁelds (y-direction) is small in comparison to its length (x-direction), the lens action is only in the y-direction. The formula for the focal length (comp. 40)) is then f= 2Va . 42) The lens action is twice as strong as that of a circular aperture, but occurs only in one azimuthal direction.

50 2 Electrostatic Deﬂection Fig. 4. Cylindrical condenser acting as thick lens It is found that the cylindrical condenser sector ﬁeld acts as a thick lens (Fig. 4) with two principal planes. In the exit principal plane P2 the center of energy dispersion is located. In the x2 , y2 coordinate system the equation of a trajectory leaving the sector ﬁeld can be written y2 = L1 α1 + x2 1− L1 f α1 + λδ . 18) It is the equation of a lens plus the dispersion term λδ. 19) δ2 δ1 δ2 = δ1 = δ, 0 01 with L1 α1 = y1 , α1 = y1 .