Becoming India: Western Himalayas Under British Rule by Aniket Alam

By Aniket Alam

Turning into India demonstrates that the Western Himalayas have been politically, economically and socially far-off from the civilisations and empires of the North in the course of pre-colonial instances. It is helping in greater realizing of the current developmental good fortune of Himachal Pradesh in addition to the politics of the call for for separate statehood by means of Uttarakhand. It reports how the Western Himalayas grew to become part of the Indian state in the course of colonial instances. It examines intimately the peasant rebellions, extended family and caste, polyandry, institution of hill stations, land and wooded area settlements, schooling, folklore and mythology, begar and monetisation. It additionally specializes in the British coverage and nationalist politics, to make its primary aspect that the colonial stumble upon within the Western Himalayas was once qualitatively diversified from the neighbouring elements of North India and its background can't be subsumed into the overall background of India. This e-book will be of curiosity to historians, sociologists, anthropologists, improvement staff in addition to these drawn to mountain societies and women's experiences.

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10–12. 4: Caste structure of population in Pubjab hill states. Caste Population Remarks Kanet 2,56,971 Main agricultural caste (Khash) Brahmin 1,00,283 Mostly agricultural (Khash) Koli 85,227 Agricultural labour (Naga) Chamar 41,349 Agriculture labour & menial (Naga) Dagi 32,682 Agriculture labour & menial (Naga) Rajput 30,776 Historical immigrants from plains Dumna/Dom 25,916 Agriculture labour & menial (Naga) Gujar 17,445 Migratory pastoralists (Muslim) Bhat 13,318 Category of hill Bramhin(Khash) Julaha 13,236 Mainly in lower hills Lohar 11,902 Menial ( some Nagas) Gaddi 11,177 Khatri 7,788 Mainly in Mandi, Chamba, Bilaspur Pastoralists on Great Himalayan range Tarkhan 6,469 Menial ( both Khash & Naga) Kumhar 5,783 Menial (mainly Naga) Thori/Turi 3,072 Menial , temple attendant (Naga) Bohra 3,054 Immigrant trader caste Pujari 2,454 Low priests (Naga) Banya 2,081 Lowhills (85% Nahan & Chamba) Chuhra 1,896 Menial and so there was a pressing need to curtail the increase of population and the economic units operating in any given area.

Cit. 42–3. 47. Punjab Census, 1881, Native States. 22 Becoming India whereas the smaller states have considerably higher densities, a trend which is discussed in greater length in the next chapter. A modern book of geography classifies the rural settlements of the region into three types that fits the pattern which is found in the records of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. 48 Intensive cultivation of land and also use of its non-agricultural resources, collective management of water and a common agricultural routine are identified as the basis for the first type listed here.

The two main centres of power, the lineage based clans and the Hill State and their inter relations with each other will subsequently be studied. It will be one of the contentions of this book that the interdependence of production, the demographic and geographic constraints on either the intensification or expansion of production and the exceptional marginality, both economic and spatial, of monetisation, even among the trading groups, holds the key to Political Economy of the Western Himalayas 33 understanding the uniqueness of the Western Himalayan political economy before the intrusion of the British.

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