By R. E. Munn
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Extra info for Biometeorological Methods
Network Spacing 57 The Nashville study included a comparative health survey in different parts of the city. There was a need, therefore, to estimate not only the urban mean values but also the spatial gradients of pollution. Figure 24 compares the annual mean sulfation determined by networks of 32 and 119 stations. Although the patterns differ in minor details, the smaller network may be satisfactory for a health study. A similar investigation in Sheffield, England (77) is in qualitative agreement with the Nashville results.
It is not known whether or not a true threshold level exists for any or all the somatic effects of radiation below which complete recovery would occur. Nor is it known whether the risk of a given biological effect is linearly related to the dose. In practice, the assumption is usually made that no threshold exists, and linear dose-effect relationships apply. In any case then, it is apparent that doses of the order of tens of rads will be associated with an incidence of somatic effects comparable with the natural incidence of leukemias and cancers in human populations.
Of the many sources of additional information, the reports of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are recommended, being both authoritative and concise (31, 32). 4. DEGREE DAYS Degree days are the accumulated departures of mean temperatures on successive days from some reference temperature (negative departures for space heating, positive departures for air conditioning and vegetation growth). If the mean temperature for a winter day is 3°C and the reference value is 15°C, then 12 degree days are added to the previous total.