BRE building elements: foundations, basements and external by H.W. Harrison

By H.W. Harrison

Offers development execs with functional information about these components of structures in direct touch with the floor, together with foundations and basements, including exterior works.

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Extra info for BRE building elements: foundations, basements and external works

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The layers of clay and silt are typically 100–500 mm thick. Where still, swampy conditions have existed for long periods of time with occasional sudden flows of water, the resulting deposit is usually a uniform clay or silty clay with very thin laminations of coarse silt or sand. These may not be more than a grain or two thick and are usually not thicker than 10 mm. Often they are extremely difficult to detect by eye in the soil at its natural moisture content. On partial drying, however, the coarser seams dry first to a light colour and can then be detected.

Varved clay consists of alternating layers of silt and clay of comparable thickness and are deposited in lakes fed by ice. The layers of clay and silt are typically 100–500 mm thick. Where still, swampy conditions have existed for long periods of time with occasional sudden flows of water, the resulting deposit is usually a uniform clay or silty clay with very thin laminations of coarse silt or sand. These may not be more than a grain or two thick and are usually not thicker than 10 mm. Often they are extremely difficult to detect by eye in the soil at its natural moisture content.

As most soils in the UK were deposited under marine conditions, the applied vertical effective stress at any stage in the consolidation was simply the effective overburden pressure. Many UK clay soils from the early Tertiary period have been extensively eroded, especially during glacial periods, so that what are now nearsurface deposits once existed at depths of several hundred metres. These deposits therefore have preconsolidation pressures that are far greater than their current overburden pressure and are described as heavily over-consolidated.

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